Salam Kopi Pagi…………..

Mengenai pelaksanaan putusan perkara perdata, hal ini diatur dalam Reglemen Indonesia Yang Diperbaharui (“HIR”) Bab Kesembilan Bagian Kelima tentang Menjalankan Keputusan Pasal 195 s.d. Pasal 224.

Pada prinsipnya, dalam perkara perdata pelaksanaan putusan pengadilan dilakukan oleh pihak yang dikalahkan. Akan tetapi, terkadang pihak yang kalah tidak mau menjalankan putusan secara sukarela. Di dalam peraturan perundang-undangan tidak diatur jangka waktu jika putusan akan dilaksanakan secara sukarela oleh pihak yang kalah. Pihak yang menang dapat meminta bantuan pihak pengadilan untuk memaksakan eksekusi putusan berdasarkan Pasal 196 HIR:

“Jika pihak yang dikalahkan tidak mau atau lalai untuk memenuhi isi keputusan itu dengan damai, maka pihak yang menang memasukkan permintaan, baik dengan lisan, maupun dengan surat, kepada ketua, pengadilan negeri yang tersebut pada ayat pertama pasal 195, buat menjalankan keputusan itu Ketua menyuruh memanggil pihak yang dikalahkan itu serta memperingatkan, supaya ia memenuhi keputusan itu di dalam tempo yang ditentukan oleh ketua, yang selama-lamanya delapan hari.”

Jika setelah jangka waktu yang telah ditetapkan, putusan masih juga tidak dilaksanakan, maka Ketua Pengadilan memerintahkan agar disita barang-barang milik pihak yang kalah sampai dirasa cukup akan pengganti jumlah uang yang tersebut di dalam keputusan itu dan ditambah pula dengan semua biaya untuk menjalankan keputusan itu (Pasal 197 HIR).

M. Yahya Harahap dalam buku Ruang Lingkup Permasalahan Eksekusi Bidang Perdata (hal.11) menulis,

“Pada prinsipnya eksekusi sebagai tindakan paksa menjalankan putusan pengadilan yang telah berkekuatan hukum tetap baru merupakan pilihan hukum apabila pihak yang kalah tidak mau menjalankan atau memenuhi isi putusan secara sukarela. Jika pihak yang kalah bersedia menaati dan memenuhi putusan secara sukarela, tindakan eksekusi harus disingkirkan. Oleh karena itu, harus dibedakan antara menjalankan putusan secara sukarela dan menjalankan putusan secara eksekusi”.

Masih menurut Yahya Harahap (hal. 12), akibat dari keadaan tidak ada kepastian jika putusan dilaksanakan secara sukarela, sering dijumpai berbagai praktik pemenuhan putusan secara sukarela berbeda antara satu pengadilan dengan pengadilan yang lain.

Ada pengadilan yang tidak mau campur tangan atas pemenuhan secara sukarela, ada pula pengadilan yang aktif ambil bagian menyelesaikan pemenuhan putusan secara sukarela.

Lalu bagaimana mekanime ganti rugi terhadap perkara yang telah memiliki kekuatan hukum tetap oleh Pemda dalam rangka meningkatkan kualitas penyelenggaraan pemerintahan, badan dan/atau pejabat pemerintahan dalam menggunakan wewenang harus mengacu pada asas-asas umum pemerintahan yang baik dan berdasarkan ketentuan peraturan perundang-undangan diatur oleh UU No.30 Tahun 2014 tentang Adminitrasi Pemerintahan menjamin bahwa Keputusan dan/atau Tindakan Badan dan/atau Pejabat Pemerintahan terhadap Warga Masyarakat tidak dapat dilakukan dengan semena-mena.

Oleh karena terhadap permasalahan Eksekusi ganti rugi putusan yang sudah berkekuatan hukum tetap, diatur dalam Permendagri Nomor 64 Tahun 2020 Tentang Pedoman Penyusunan Anggaran Pendapatan Dan Belanja Daerah Tahun 2021.pada huruf (C). dikatakan akibat putusan pengadilan yang telah mempunyai kekuatan hukum tetap (In kracht) merupakan kewajiban yang harus dipenuhi.

Untuk itu, meskipun tidak mudah melakukan eksekusi ekseksi riil pemerintah daerah dimungkinkan mekanisme ganti rugi pembayaran oleh pemerintah daerah.

Cikarang, 07 Oktober 2020

Seruput Dulu Kopinya…..

ULUNG PURNAMA, SH.,MH.

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