KABUPATEN BEKASI – inforayanews.co.id, – Pasca kejadian tumpahan minyak di area pantai Karawang, tim Pertamina Hulu Energy (PHE) ONWJ wilayah Karawang yang berdampak kewilayah laut disekitar desa kabupaten Bekasi, pembersihan masih dilakukan mulai dari laut hingga ke sisi darat. Untuk pembersihan di laut, PHE ONWJ mengerahkan beberapa kapal, sedangkan pembersihan di pantai melibatkan nelayan dan masyarakat di pesisir pantai Karawang. Selain itu, secara rutin PHE ONWJ juga melakukan flyover atau pemantauan dari udara untuk memetakan lokasi sisa tumpahan.

Bersama masyarakat telah membersihkan sisa ceceran minyak yang bercampur dengan pasir terutama di area sekitar Cemara Jaya, Pasir Putih Sukajaya dan Tanjung Sari, termasuk menambah personel Oil Spill Combat Team (OSCT) di lokasi pantai agar pembersihan bisa lebih cepat, pipa minyak milik Pertamina Hulu Energi Offshore North West Java atau PHE ONWJ di perairan utara Karawang, Jawa Barat, akibat kebocoran pada Kamis, 15 April 2021. Menurut Satuan Kerja Khusus Pelaksana Kegiatan Usaha Hulu Minyak dan Gas Bumi (SKK Migas) menyebut insiden ini terjadi karena kerusakan internal karena korosi (berkarat), pipa sudah uzur alias aging facility, tidak ada efek eksternal menurut Deputi Operasi SKK Migas  dan mencegah  minyak yang sudah bocor menjalar kemana-mana menggunakan oil boom.

Ini bukanlah kejadian yang pertama. Sebelumnya, kebocoran juga terjadi di Sumur YYA-1 milik PHE ONWHJ pada 12 Juli 2019. Kebocoran ini kemudian bisa dihentikan pada 21 September 2019. Oleh karena itu berakibat masyarakat mengalami kerugian yang terkena dampak.

Direktur Jenderal Pengendalian Pencemaran dan Kerusakan Lingkungan, Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan, Karliansyah, menyebut setidaknya 12 desa di Karawang dan Bekasi serta tujuh pulau di Kepulauan Seribu, terkena dampak tumpahan minyak Pertamina.

“Itu ada Pulau Air, Pulau Untung Jawa, Bidadari, Lancang, Pulau Rambut, Pulau Damar, Dari pengamatan KLHK, tumpahan minyak di pantai sudah ditangani dengan baik oleh Pertamina dengan memasang oil boom, atau peralatan yang digunakan untuk melokalisir atau mengurung tumpahan minyak di air, sepanjang 500 meter. Petugas juga menggunakan 44 kapal untuk menghadang tumpahan minyak ke bibir pantai.Kalau di pantai sudah dibersihkan langsung, minyaknya dikarungin langsung dibawa ke pusat limbah B3.

Akibat hal tersebut berakibat terjadinya pencemaran laut yang menimbulkan kewajiban bagi pencemar baik itu negara, individu dan badan hukum lainnya yang masing-masing mempunyai peran dan bertanggung jawab untuk melakukan beberapa tindakan atau upaya dalam pencegahan dan penanggulangan serta pembayaran ganti rugi, terhadap pencemaran yang disebabkan oleh minyak. Hal ini dapat dikenakan Tanggung jawab mutlak dalam strict liability sebagauimana diatur oleh UU Nomor 32 Tahun 2009 tentang PPLH, oleh karena itu sudah sepatutnya setiap perusahaan memiliki asuransi kerugian agar setiap waktu dapat membantu mencover permasalahan yang terjadi, sebagaimana terjadi permasalahan yang sama terjadi diluar negeri maka perusahaan asuransi yang ikut bertanggungjawab melakukan penghitungan nilai kerugian yang ada.

Konsep pertanggungjawaban atas pencemaran minyak ini bilamana melihat pada Civil Liability Convention 1969  terdiri dari 4 hal utama yang menjadi perhatian yakni:

Bahaya dari pencemaran minyak itu melekat dalam transportasi minyak dengan kapal melalui laut;
Kebutuhan untuk memastikan adanya kompensasi yang layak terhadap masyarakat yang mengalami kerugian dari pencemaran yang dihasilkan dari kebocoran atau bongkar muat dari kapal;
Keinginan untuk penyamaan desain peraturan dan prosedur untuk menemukan pertanggungjawaban dan penyediaan ganti rugi yang layak; dan
Keinginan pemerintah agar lebih percaya diri dalam mengambil tindakan awal, dan tindakan yang

Dan merujuk pada konvensi tersebut disesuaikan dengan UU Nomor 30 Tahun 2009 tentang  PPLH yang dibentuk atas dasar Pasal 28 H ayat (1) UUD 1945 yang mengakui “setiap orang berhak mendapatkan lingkungan hidup yang bersih dan sehat”

Mengingat sudah jelas pihak yang dianggap terduga pelaku pencemaran maka prinsip “Strict liability” dapat diterapkan kepada peristiwa tersebut; karena orang atau badan hukum yang mengakibatkan kerusakan lingkungan tersebut bertanggungjawab untuk memberikan kompensasi terhadap kerusakan yang ditimbulkan olehnya. Di sini, biaya sosial harus ditanggung oleh pelaku. Untuk mencegah agar pelaku tidak menanggung biaya sosial yang besar, maka seharusnya pelaku melakukan tindakan-tindakan pencegahan. Dalam strict liability ini, pelaku tetap harus bertanggungjawab walaupun sudah secara optimal menerapkan prinsip kehati-hatian.

KBH-WM Memberikan Pandangan Hukum

Terhadap perkara lingkungan hidup Mahkamah Agung telah mengeluarkan Keputusan Ketua Mahkamah Agung Nomor: 36/KMA/SK/II/2013 tentang Pemberlakuan Pedoman Penanganan Perkara Lingkungan Hidup.  Atas dasar pedoman tersebut setiap orang peroarangan atau badan hukum yang telah merugikan lingkungan hidup dapat diminta pertanggungjawaban hukumnya.

Penghitungan ganti rugi  berdasarkan Peraturan Menteri Negara Lingkungan Hidup Nomor 13 Tahun 2011 tentang Ganti Kerugian Akibat Pencemaran dan/atau Kerusakan Lingkungan jenis kerugian akibat pencemaran dan/atau kerusakan lingkungan;

a.Kerugian karena tidak dilaksanakannya kewajiban pengolahan air limbah, emisi, dan/atau pengelolaan limbah bahan berbahaya dan beracun; atau

b.Kerugian untuk pengganti biaya penanggulangan pencemaran dan/atau kerusakan lingkungan hidup serta pemulihan lingkungan hidup;

c.Kerugian untuk pengganti biaya verifikasi pengaduan, inventarisasi sengketa lingkungan, dan biaya pengawasan pembayaran ganti kerugian dan pelaksanaan tindakan tertentu

1) Penanggulangan;

2) Pemulihan;

d.Kerugian ekosistem atau kerugian akibat hilangnya keanekaragaman hayati dan menurunnya fungsi lingkungan hidup; dan/atau

e.Kerugian masyarakat akibat pencemaran dan/atau kerusakan lingkungan hidup

Tidak semua perkara perdata lingkungan hidup memiliki kelima jenis kerugian tersebut di atas.

Lalu siapakah Pihak yang berwenang menghitung ganti kerugian tersebut;

Berdasarkan Peraturan Menteri Negara Lingkungan Hidup Nomor 13 Tahun 2011 tentang Ganti Kerugian Akibat Pencemaran dan/atau Kerusakan Lingkungan, penghitungan ganti kerugian harus dilakukan oleh ahli yang memenuhi kriteria:

a.Memiliki sertifikat kompetensi; dan/atau

b.Telah melakukan penelitian ilmiah dan/atau berpengalaman di bidang:

1) Pencemaran dan/atau kerusakan lingkungan hidup; dan/atau

2).Evaluasi ekonomi lingkungan hidup.

Adapun Metode penghitungan ganti kerugian dapat meliputi :

a.Metode Penghitungan Berdasar Akumulasi Nilai Unit Pencemaran;

Dengan memperhatikan keanekaragaman industri dengan jenis dan jumlah parameter limbah yang berbeda-beda, pendekatan penghitungan kerugian lingkungan didasarkan pada akumulasi nilai unit pencemaran setiap parameter. Nilai unit pencemaran setiap parameter limbah dan basis biaya per unit pencemaran b. ditetapkan berdasarkan besaran dampak pencemaran pada lingkungan dan kesehatan.

b.Metode Penghitungan Berdasarkan Biaya Operasional

Metode penghitungan ganti kerugian ini menggunakan biaya operasional per m3 limbah yang diolah dengan baik dan memenuhi kriteria baku mutu pada suatu industri sebagai pembanding bagi industri lain yang sejenis.

Metode Penghitungan Prinsip Biaya Penuh

Penghitungan menggunakan metode prinsip biaya penuh (meliputi biaya tenaga kerja, energi, bahan kimia, pemeliharaan dan depresiasi/amortisasi nilai investasi) terhadap fasilitas pengolahan limbah (IPPU, IPAL atau IPLP) eksisting (dalam hal fasilitas pengolah limbah sudah dimiliki namun kapasitasnya kekecilan dan/atau salah pengoperasian dan/atau sengaja tidak dioperasikan/by-pass) atau dipilih teknologi pengolah limbah baru sesuai dengan kebutuhan proses (dalam hal fasilitas pengolahan limbah belum dimiliki atau sudah dimiliki) agar memenuhi kriteria baku mutu limbah.

Bentuk tindakan tertentu dan kaitannya dengan ganti kerugian.

Bentuk tindakan tertentu yang harus dilakukan oleh pencemar dan/atau perusak lingkungan hidup meliputi :

a.Pencegahan pencemaran dan/atau perusakan lingkungan hidup;

b.Penanggulangan pencemaran dan/atau perusakan lingkungan hidup; dan/atau

c.Pemulihan fungsi lingkungan hidup.

Dalam hal pelaku pencemaran dan/atau perusakan lingkungan hidup tidak  melaksanakan tindakan tertentu berupa penanggulangan dan/atau pemulihan lingkungan hidup, instansi lingkungan hidup dapat memerintahkan pihak ketiga untuk melakukan penanggulangan dan/atau pemulihan dengan beban biaya ditanggung oleh pelaku pencemaran dan/atau kerusakan lingkungan hidup, dengan kata lain tindakan tertentu bisa diganti dengan pembayaran ganti kerugian untuk pengganti biaya penanggulangan pencemaran dan/atau kerusakan lingkungan hidup serta pemulihan lingkungan hidup.

Atas dasar pandangan hukum tersebut KBH-WM mengingatkan PHE ONWJ agar bertanggungjawab penuh untuk memperbaiki lingkungan hidup yang diakibatkan kejadian tersebut dan bertanggungjawab melakukan ganti kerugian kepada pihak-pihak yang telah dirugikan termasuk masyarakat disekitar lokasi yang tercemar dengan melakukan penghitungan ganti rugi sebagaimana ditetapkan oleh ketentuan hukum yang ada dan kepada Instansi terkait agar memastikan adanya perbaikan lingkungan hidup tersebut dan memastikan tanggungjawab tersebut berjalan dengan baik termasuk memberikan ganti kerugian bagi masyarakat sekitar.(Red)

 

Disampaikan oleh: Kajian dan Bantuan Hukum Wibawa Mukti  (KBH –WM) Bekasi, 29 April 2021

Salam Hormat kami,

KBH-WIBAWA MUKTI

Ketua                    : ULUNG PURNAMA, SH.MH

Bidang Advokasi    : LIBET ASTOYO, SH

Bidang Litigasi       : NURKHOLIS MADJID, SH.

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